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SUNY Geneseo Fraser Hall Library Subject Guides


ECON 376: Labor Economics: Citation in AER Style

From the AEA page on the AER citation Style

A. Title page:

DO NOT use a separate sheet for the title page. Title and byline should be placed at the top of the first page. Contact information should appear in a note at the bottom of the first page, indicated by an asterisk (*) placed after the (last) author's name. In this note, please:

• Provide the full mailing address and e-mail address for each author;

• Indicate the institutions and/or grant numbers of any financial support you have received for your research; and

• Personally acknowledge individuals who have contributed criticism on earlier drafts of your paper. (Please do not thank the coeditor.)

B. Abstracts:

Abstracts are required for all articles and should not exceed 100 words.

C. Section heads:

Do not begin with “Introduction” as a section head. Section headings should be given Roman numerals (I., II., etc.); subsections should be lettered A., B., etc.

D. Footnotes:

Footnotes should be embedded and numbered consecutively.

E. In-text citations:

For citations in the text, use author last name(s) only followed by year of publication in parentheses. When listing a string of references within the text, arrange first in chronological order, then alphabetically within years. If there are four or more authors, refer to the first author, followed by et al. and the year. If there is more than one publication referred to in the same year by the author(s), use the year and a, b, etc. (example: 1997a, b). Referenced year and spelling of last name in the text must match those in the reference section exactly. LaTeX and Scientific Word users, please use the aea.bst file provided in the template package.

i. Organizations or governmental agencies in the text:

On first references, use the full name followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Subsequent references should use abbreviation only; for example: Social Science Research Council (SSRC) [first reference], SSRC [subsequently].

F. Mathematical equations:

• Equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively at the left margin, using Arabic numbers in parentheses;

• Please use italics for scalar variables, use boldface to specify vectors and matrices, and use script for sets.

•  Subscripts and superscripts must be easily distinguished from regular variables and from each other. Use only two levels of sub- and superscripts.

•  Fractions: When equations in the text contain fractions, use a slash "/" or solidus and clearly denote numerator and denominator with parentheses. Display fractions that are too complicated to keep in the text on a separate line.

G. Quotations:

Quotations must correspond exactly with the original in wording, spelling, and punctuation.

Page numbers must be given. Changes must be indicated: use brackets to identify insertions; use ellipsis dots (...) to show omissions. Also indicate where emphasis has been added. Only lengthy quotations (more than 50 words) should be separated from the text; such quotations must be indented at the left margin.

H. Tables:

Tables should …

• Be no more than 9 columns wide in a vertical or "portrait" orientation (this includes row headings);

• Be numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers;

• Not use vertical lines to show space distinction (use only horizontal lines and additional blank space if necessary);

• Not have any shading;

• Use Panel A and Panel B to denote sections of a table. Do not abbreviate in column headings;

• Spell out "percent"; do not use the percent sign. Place a zero in front of the decimal point in all decimal fractions (i.e., 0.357, not .357).

• For footnotes pertaining to specific table entries, footnote keys should be lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.); these footnotes should follow the more general table Note(s) or Source(s).  Please do not use stars to denote significance of estimation results. Just report the standard errors in parenthesis.

• Source lines should follow the footnotes. If the citation is a complete sentence, place a period at the end of the source line (see examples of format below).

Example 1

Source: Authors’ calculations

Example 2

Source: All data was obtained from Authors’ calculations.

• Full citations of the sources are to be included in the references.

I. Figures:

Figures MUST be submitted in PDF, EPS, AI, WMF, or PPT. Format photographs and raster images at 300 dpi. If there are variables (italics) or matrices and vectors (boldface) in figures, they should be designated as such. You are encouraged to create figures in color. Figures you create in color will appear in black and white in the print journal. You should ensure that your colored elements are sufficiently differentiated when rendered as gray so that readers of the paper version can understand them.

NOTE: The journal cannot reprint imagery owned by a third party without the formal written consent of the copyright holder. This can include, but is not limited to, reproductions of advertisements, maps, diagrams, corporate logos, and screen shots of web pages.

J. Reference list:

Use full names of authors and/or editors. List all authors/editors up to/including ten names. Authors of articles and books and materials without specific authors or editors, such as government documents or bulletins, are to be listed alphabetically. Please follow the Chicago Manual of Style's "Author-Date" style. LaTeX and Scientific Word users, please use the aea.bst file.

• We encourage you to use bibliographic software when preparing your reference list. If you are using software please select "Chicago Author-Date" when using bibliographic software.

• Not all document types are covered in reference list software. We include helpful guidelines for several document types at our Sample References page.

•  Data References: References to datasets should be included in your reference list. You can find examples of how to cite datasets here: View Sample References.

K. Appendices:

i. Print Appendix:

Authors are encouraged to use an Appendix for technical proofs and derivations that can be separated from the main text. The Appendix should begin on a new page following the text, preceding the references. Designate multiple Appendices A, B, C, as necessary. Number equations, theorems, propositions, etc., within the Appendix as (A1), etc.

ii. Online Appendix:

Appendices that exceed five pages will appear only on our website. Online Appendices should be sent as a separate PDF file. Online Appendices will be posted without being typeset or copyedited by the journal. Please be sure to center the following information at the top of the first page of your online appendix as its heading: paper title, all names of the authors, and the words "Online Appendix."

L. Other style points:

• Do not use the % sign; always spell out the word "percent."

• Apostrophes are used for possessives (e.g., Robert’s journal), generally not for pluralization (i.e., HMOs).

• Hyphenate compound adjectives when they come before a noun, not after (e.g., a well-known author; an author well known). Generally, the following prefixes are not hyphenated: non, pre, post, over, under, intra, pro, re, semi. However, quasi and self are hyphenated whether they precede or follow the noun.

Relevant Points to Citation (Taken from the left box)

D. Footnotes:

Footnotes should be embedded and numbered consecutively.

E. In-text citations:

For citations in the text, use author last name(s) only followed by year of publication in parentheses. When listing a string of references within the text, arrange first in chronological order, then alphabetically within years. If there are four or more authors, refer to the first author, followed by et al. and the year. If there is more than one publication referred to in the same year by the author(s), use the year and a, b, etc. (example: 1997a, b). Referenced year and spelling of last name in the text must match those in the reference section exactly. LaTeX and Scientific Word users, please use the aea.bst file provided in the template package.

i. Organizations or governmental agencies in the text:

On first references, use the full name followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Subsequent references should use abbreviation only; for example: Social Science Research Council (SSRC) [first reference], SSRC [subsequently].


G. Quotations:

Quotations must correspond exactly with the original in wording, spelling, and punctuation.

Page numbers must be given. Changes must be indicated: use brackets to identify insertions; use ellipsis dots (...) to show omissions. Also indicate where emphasis has been added. Only lengthy quotations (more than 50 words) should be separated from the text; such quotations must be indented at the left margin.


J. Reference list:

Use full names of authors and/or editors. List all authors/editors up to/including ten names. Authors of articles and books and materials without specific authors or editors, such as government documents or bulletins, are to be listed alphabetically. Please follow the Chicago Manual of Style's "Author-Date" style. LaTeX and Scientific Word users, please use the aea.bst file.

• We encourage you to use bibliographic software when preparing your reference list. If you are using software please select "Chicago Author-Date" when using bibliographic software.

• Not all document types are covered in reference list software. We include helpful guidelines for several document types at our Sample References page.

•  Data References: References to datasets should be included in your reference list. You can find examples of how to cite datasets here: View Sample References.